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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 199-205

Immuno-hematological abnormalities of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected highly active antiretroviral naïve adults in Zaria, Northern Nigeria

Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Aliyu Ahmadu Babadoko
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2278-9596.174658

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Background: In HIV-1-infected adults, hematological derangements include peripheral cytopenias and bone marrow abnormalities. The level of the CD4+ T lymphopenia is presently considered as one of the best markers of HIV induced immune impairment. Multiple interacting factors contribute to the hematological manifestations of HIV infection. We compare the prevalence of peripheral cytopenias and the level of immunological deterioration in treatment naïve HIV-1 infected patients. Patients and Methods: Four hundred consecutive HIV-1 infected patients undergoing pre-treatment (Highly active antiretroviral therapy naïve) assessment were recruited at the HIV sub-specialty clinic of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria between May 2003 and October 2004. A cross-sectional study of baseline hematological and immunological parameters was undertaken after confirmation of HIV-1 infection by double ELISA methods; complete blood count and CD4+ T cell count (Dynal ® ) were analyzed by manual techniques. Results: Anemia is the most common peripheral cytopenia, 73% in male and 54% in the females. Neutropenia occurred in 10.8% of the patients while 6.25% had thrombocytopenia. Packed cell volume and Absolute lymphocyte count is associated with a reduction of CD4+ T cell counts but this is not consistent following gender and CDC clinical/immunological staging. CD4+ T cell counts decreases significant from asymptomatic stage A through symptomatic stages B to stage C p < 0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that anemia and low CD4+ T cells are the commonest hematological complication in HIV-1 infected patients and these cytopenias deteriorates with increasing advanced stages of the infection.

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